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How to write a bibliography

 

How to write a bibliography

A Bibliography is a listing of all the materials that have been used while writing an essay or a book.

A reference is a way of showing (acknowledging) another person’s idea, opinions or information that you have used in your work.

 

Why reference your work?

  • To acknowledge the work done by other writers and researchers
  • If you are a student, to provide a check against plagiarism (cheating by copying other people’s work and claiming it as your own)
  • To demonstrate your reading and research
  • To add credibility to your work by showing the sources of your information
  • Enable others to trace your sources easily and go on to do even more work in that area.

 

What is the Harvard system?

The Harvard system was developed in the USA and is now the most common system used internationally. It is a clear, simple and flexible system for both author and reader. All references are listed alphabetically in the Bibliography and cited in the body of the main text.

 

When to reference

You must reference your work if you use someone else’s work in your own such as directly from a book or from the internet. This is known as a ‘citation’.

Citations can be made in a number of different ways:

  • According to (Bloom, 1964), teachers tend to...
  • Bloom (1964) believes that teachers tend to...
  • Bloom (2004c, p104) states that "as teachers we tend to…"

 

 

 

How to reference

Below are some examples of how to reference some of the more common sources of information.

 

Books

 

Example:

Bloom, B. S. (1964) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain, Longmans.

 

Explanation:  

Author Last Name, Author First Name. Most current publication date (in brackets) Title (underlined, in bold or in italics), Publisher Name.

 

Encyclopaedia

 

Example:

"Gorillas" The Encyclopaedia Britannica Vol 7. 1997 ed.

 

Explanation:

Title of article (in quotes). Name of encyclopedia. (underlined) edition date

 

 

Newspapers/Magazines/Journals

 

Example:

Bicknell, D, “Has Microsoft been tamed?”, Computer Weekly , 23 February 1995, 12-14.

 

Explanation:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of article (in speech marks), Title of newspaper/magazine (underlined, in bold or in italics), Date of publication, page numbers.

 Note: For Journals, replace the ‘Date of publication’ with the volume and issue number.

 

 

Internet

Citing online sources of information tends to be more difficult as many websites do not provide an author’s name. When citing online sources, try to provide as much information as possible so as to enable your readers to find the same material.

 

Example

Twist, J. (2005) Pocket answer to digital divide. [Internet] London, UK. Available from: <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/4446966.stm> [Accessed 18 November 2005]    

 

Explanation:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. (Year) Title (underlined, in bold or in italics) [Internet] City and country where written. Available from: <URL> (note the brackets), [Accessed date]

 

Online Images

 

Example:
Sony Ericsson K750i (2005) [online image]. Available from http://www.mobile-phones-uk.org.uk/sony-ericsson-k750i.htm>, sonyericssonk750i.gif [Accessed 21 June 2005] 

 

Explanation:

Title of image (underlined, in bold or in italics – just be consistent!), (Year) [OnLine image]. Available from <URL>, Filename including extension. [Date accessed]

 

 

Example Bibliography

 

  1. Bicknell, D, “Has Microsoft been tamed?”, Computer Weekly , 23 February 1995, 12-14.
  2. Bloom, B. S. (1964) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain, Longmans.
  3. "Gorillas" The Encyclopaedia Britannica Vol 7. 1997 ed.
  4. Sony Ericsson K750i (2005) [online image]. Available from http://www.mobile-phones-uk.org.uk/sony-ericsson-k750i.htm>, sonyericssonk750i.gif [Accessed 21 June 2005]
  5. Twist, J. (2005) Pocket answer to digital divide. [Internet] London, UK. Available from: < http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/4446966.stm> [Accessed 18 November 2005]

 

 

 

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